Lets see how well this holds up in the real world. I was given this algorithm to write a hash function: BEGIN Hash (string) UNSIGNED INTEGER key = 0; FOR_EACH character IN string key = ((key << 5) + key) ^ character; END FOR_EACH RETURN key; END Hash. The United States of America has adopted a suite of secure hash algorithms (SHAs), including four beyond SHA-1, as part of a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), specifically SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512. SHA and Whirlpool are examples of the two approaches,. See, no shifts or XORs. The FNV-1a hash differs from the FNV-1 hash by only the order in which the multiply and XOR is performed: algorithm fnv-1a is hash := FNV_offset_basis for each byte_of_data to be hashed do hash := hash XOR byte_of_data hash := hash × FNV_prime return hash. XOR is both faster and more secure than just addition. Checksum Calculator is a free file checksum calculation utility, it can support the most commonly used file checksum algorithm, such as md5, crc32, and sha1, can batch process multiple files. (c) the exclusive or of all elements indexed by the solution equals 0. You can provide the expected hash and compare the calculated CRC checksum with it. Ethereum (ETH) detailed transaction info for txhash 0xa84bda74abdff8f6c08968e38484a08afea2e45b3fda6ee2115b91a48477105f. Of course this won't change the order of finding a collision, but a XOR is still significantly faster than calculating a hash. ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 100 3. 1 来自hashcode的思考. The CRC hash can be generated in Base64, Hex or Integer formats. 62 are sent to both links, and both arp replies are got back too. C program to ring a bell. The ETEK EB-85A reader has a proprietary command protocol that requires the calculation of the checksum of each command you send. Internally, the elements are not sorted in any particular order, but organized into buckets. SHA-1（英语：Secure Hash Algorithm 1，中文名：安全散列算法1）是一种密码散列函数，美国国家安全局设计，并由美国国家标准技术研究所（NIST）发布为联邦数据处理标准（FIPS）。. MD4 Hash Calculator. For describing the algorithm the following notation and definitions are adopted:-. size_t name_hash (const Name & name) {return hash < string > ()(name. out Please enter the seed: 12345 Please enter the range: 1 9999 This is the random number passed in 3995 this is the number inputed 3995 This is the random number passed in 10463 this is the number inputed 10463 Segmentation fault >. With two instructions a shift+xor is probably the best option. The code is based on the post [here]. The control B works in such a way. 64 for SHA-512. We define XOR-based hash functions of four types as the following: (i). , the order of the XOR operations. An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost Tags. The formula is (((source IP XOR dest IP) AND 0xffff) XOR ( source MAC XOR destination MAC )) modulo slave count This algorithm will place all traffic to a particular network peer on the same slave. XOR makes a delightful distance metric because it is symmetric. ‘Base64 decoding’ is the process of transforming a base64 representation — a string of odd-looking text — back into the original binary or text data. When it comes to cryptosystems, the security of encrypted data is dependent on keeping the encrypting algorithm secret. 3 Diﬀerential Attack for Hash Functions 3. For help with security questions, password reset, and any other account support help, please contact us at the appropriate number below: Merrill Lynch Wealth Management Clients: 1. RipeMD160 Hash Calculator. Since Python’s built-in hash() function is random, a NEW random result can be generated by applying the XOR with another number. Now XOR them together (XOR is the simplest of decryption procedures and forms the basis of many algorithms including MD5) as shown below to retrieve the output of the procedure. Practice: Bitwise operators. Inside a table, a column often contains many duplicate values; and sometimes you only want to list the different (distinct) values. Given a non-empty array of numbers, a0, a1, a2, … , an-1, where 0 ≤ ai < 231. A hash calculation is performed. When the same hash algorithm is used, the same results are produced. Each specialization of this template is either enabled ("untainted") or disabled ("poisoned"). drcjudelhi created at: 4 minutes ago | No replies yet. Introduction. By using the HMAC (Hash Message Authentication Code) field below, you are also able to strengthen the security of your cipher. Example: The plain message is 1001 and the key is 10 Take the first bit ( 0 or 1 ) of the plain text and the first bit of the key and multiply then using XOR operation to get the ciphered bit. Note that immutable? is not a general predicate for immutability (despite its name). The output of this code is a 32-bit (or 64-bit or however wide your unsigned int is) unsigned integer. Port trunking: Balance XOR - missing xmit_hash_policy option Don't miss a thing. The offsetting done on every other character adds just a little to the confusion. It is better than and and or, but that doesn't say much. About Hash-Buster: Hash Buster is a python script which uses several online hash cracker WEBSITE to find cleartext of a hash in less than 5 seconds. The Bitwise Calculator is used to perform bitwise AND, bitwise OR, bitwise XOR (bitwise exclusive or) operations on two integers. The transaction status, block confirmation. To wait to try out our gaining a considerable potential benefits, please do all drugs, however, the Hash Moncton New Brunswick Canada lives up their leases as fort howe show. With two instructions a shift+xor is probably the best option. The main component of a MAC function is a hash digest function (see Figure 10. npx = add(A) XOR add(C) // bitwise XOR of address of A and address of C. A degree-127 Additive RNG using 127 elements of 32 bits each has 2 4064 unique states. The hash functions used in the operations contained in Sections 7, 8 and 9 should be collision resistant. By Sung-Jin Cho, Un-Sook Choi, Yoon-Hee Hwang and Han-Doo Kim. a) Almost of debugging tools cannot follow the XOR chain, making debugging difficult b) You need to remember the address of the previously accessed node in order to calculate the next node’s address c) In some contexts XOR of pointers is not defined d) XOR list decreases the space requirement in doubly linked list View Answer. Also, I had another question: If I broke up the random data into 512-bit blocks, and hashed each of them with SHA-512 (using /dev/random to generate #'s for the hash function), would this increase, decrease, or do nothing to the quality of the data?. Use of XOR operations on two numbers using C program. I came up with this example to help understand the above: m = 3 (we have 3 blocks of 4 bits) b1 = 0101, b2 = 0111, b3 = 1011. Out of curiousity I wrote a Mandelbrot pixel shader in OpenGL GLSL. MD5 Hash Calculator. Design of efﬁcient XOR-based hash functions In this section we model efﬁcient XOR-based hash functions when the number of address bits is 2m, where m is even or odd. out Please enter the seed: 12345 Please enter the range: 1 9999 This is the random number passed in 3995 this is the number inputed 3995 This is the random number passed in 10463 this is the number inputed 10463 Segmentation fault >. Transaction Hash: Swap 0. Even XOR- or \(\Delta\)-universality doesn’t suffice: the hash values for a given string are well distributed when parameters are chosen uniformly at random, but this does not imply that hashes are always (or usually) well distributed for fixed parameters. hash": "ba42affb6c708b6bf625582c3409a173462af1a8e011af4f50ab769cd3733375", "confirmations": 88, "strippedsize":. For when you split up a hash into shorter parts, the same idea applies for the shortened parts. Combined one byte at a time with the plaintext stream using the XOR operation, a _____ is the output of the pseudorandom bit generator. Setting db key descriptions didn't work in some cases. When applied to the ASCII values of a string of text (char), it has the effect of resulting in addition with no "carry". The binary operators (and, or, xor) implicitly perform sign extension on the shorter of the two operands prior to performing the operation. Introduction to MD5 Algorithm: you can refer this link Introduction To Cryptography ,if you don’t know about encryption. GetBytes(text); byte[] encrypted = new byte[decrypted. XOR algorithm of encryption and decryption converts the plain text in the format ASCII bytes and uses XOR procedure to convert it to a specified byte. The algorithm is optimized for 8-bit computers. When implementing an XOR-based hash function, it is extremely important to understand what patterns are mapped conflict-free and how a hash function. When combining the bits, if both values are the same, the result is 0 (1 XOR 1 = 0). This means nodes can update their finger tables by recording the addresses of nodes that query them, reducing significantly the amount of node update traffic. Djb2 hash function c explained. Good hash functions have no need for the modulo prime; randomness is equally distributed for any bit flip on the input. Both deviations from the original FNV algorithm reduce the amount of hash collisions for short strings. SHA1 Hash Calculator. Since + and / characters are not URL and filename safe, The RFC 3548 defines another variant of Base64 encoding whose output is URL and Filename safe. XOR cipher is a simple additive encryption technique in itself but is used commonly in other encryption techniques. 3ad 适应的，尤其考虑到在 802. PEP 456 -- Secure and interchangeable hash algorithm XOR-ed to the final value. The only thing we need is to convert a string (pattern. Hash Funktionen: Algorithms • MD5 -family • SHA-1: output - 160 Bit; input - 512 bit chunks of message x; operations - bitwise AND, OR, XOR, complement und cyclic shifts. MD4 is a message digest algorithm (the fourth in a series) designed by Professor Ronald Rivest of MIT in 1990. Both contains 5 equal elements (say 1 to 5), but second array contains one extra element. Deﬁnition 3. It is better than and and or, but that doesn't say much. The leftmost flipflop is the MSB of the CRC. Find the most frequent number in the recorded list and how many times it appears. Diese dienen zur Berechnung eines Prüfwerts für beliebige digitale Daten (Nachrichten) und sind unter anderem die Grundlage zur Erstellung einer digitalen Signatur. We introduce a truncated addition operation on pairs of N -bit binary numbers that interpolates between ordinary addition mod and bitwise addition in. If you would like to compare two sets of raw data (source of the file, text or similar) it is always better to hash it and compare SHA256 values. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance. XOR is a digital logic gate that outputs true or 1 only when the two binary bit inputs to it are unequal i. A Hash Collision Attack is an attempt to find two input strings of a hash function that produce the same hash result. Torrent Contents. wird durch XOR Kombination mit einer Konstanten ("padding") auf die Blocklänge der Hash-Funktion aufgefüllt; das sind 64 Byte (512 Bit) für die meisten gängigen Hash-Funktionen. In this paper, we design new XOR-based hash functions, which compute each set index bit as XOR of a subset of the bits in the address. 1 XOR 1 = 1. Sometimes, in your JavaScript, you might want to do the following:. IACR Cryptol. the Hamming code has 16 codewords, and its codewords are 7 bits long. Checksum Calculator is a free file checksum calculation utility, it can support the most commonly used file checksum algorithm, such as md5, crc32, and sha1, can batch process multiple files. Ethereum (ETH) detailed transaction info for txhash 0xa84bda74abdff8f6c08968e38484a08afea2e45b3fda6ee2115b91a48477105f. Public-key encryption with digital certificates. when we xor a single bit (a 1 or 0) with another bit: if 1 bit is true, and 1 bit is false, it returns true, otherwise it returns false; sooo: 1 xor 1 = 0 1 xor 0 = 1 0 xor 1 = 1 0 xor 0 = 0. 000 different hashes. W) src,dst src→dst Move source to destination Adapted from notes from BYU ECE124 18. ‘Base64 decoding’ is the process of transforming a base64 representation — a string of odd-looking text — back into the original binary or text data. Not all hash functions are secure and the hash does not necessarily changes when the data changes. W) src,dst src. It's used to verify that the file is genuine. This is a value that is computed from a base input number using a hashing algorithm. xor is symmetric, so the order of the elements is lost. Shalin and D. The XOR operand is so applied to each bit between the text you want to encrypt and the key you'll choose. JIS Journal of Information Security 2153-1234 Scientific Research Publishing 10. Create and verify digital signatures. Map的底层实现一般都是数组，为什么要求数组的长度是2的倍数？长度是2的倍数，长度 - 1 可以得到全1的二进制数， 再与hash值进行"与"运算，得到该值在数组中的位置。. Free crypto pascal/delphi source code, with AES (AES-128 to AES-256), SHA (SHA-1 and SHA-256), MD5, Xor-based classes. Any of you familiar with encryption systems can akin this to Crypt, though to a much. MD5 is used in many situations where a potentially long message needs to be processed and/or compared quickly. While modular addition is often approximated with XOR, for random inputs these operations are quite di erent. The SHA-256 algorithm generates an almost-unique, fixed-size 256-bit (32-byte) hash. SHA1, SHA2 Secure Hash Standard [FIPS PUB 180-4] SHA3 SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions [FIPS PUB 202] BLAKE2 BLAKE2 — fast secure hashing MD5 The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm [RFC 1321] MD4 The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm [RFC 1320] MACs - Message Authentication Codes. Ci = ith bit of the hash code, 1<=i<=n m = number of n-bit blocks in the input bij = ith bit in jth block XOR = exclusive-OR. the Hamming code has 16 codewords, and its codewords are 7 bits long. C program to ring a bell. Bitwise operators treat their operands as a sequence of 32 bits (zeroes and ones), rather than as decimal, hexadecimal, or octal numbers. The leftmost flipflop is the MSB of the CRC. XOR-based hash functions, which compute each set index bit as the exclusive-or of a subset of the address bits. Keystream 0011101010. A cryptographic hash is like a signature for a data set. In this paper, we design new XOR-based hash functions, which compute each set index bit as XOR of a subset of the bits in the address. The Davies-Meyer hash function (denoted h) uses the encryption algorithm E that operates on subsequent data blocks: h(H, m) = E(m, H) XOR H. We define XOR-based hash functions of four types as the following: (i). XOR is a digital logic gate that outputs true or 1 only when the two binary bit inputs to it are unequal i. VBScript code for SHA-256 hash. NET, Perl, Java, C, C++, Ruby and many more, see the Wikipedia article Comparison Of Programming Languages (String Functions). The result is a spinning cube, with each face showing a zooming in and out mandelbrot set, with randomized palettes to make all the coloring look nice. the initial position: [Hash for White Rook on a1] xor [Hash for White Knight on b1] xor [Hash for White Bishop on c1] xor. Public-key encryption with digital certificates. Post your questions and discussion about other uncategorized NAS features here. Comes with everything you need to understand complete systems such as SSL/TLS: block ciphers, stream ciphers, hash functions, message authentication codes, public key encryption, key agreement protocols, and signature algorithms. (c) the exclusive or of all elements indexed by the solution equals 0. This video shows the XOR gate and then the XNOR gate on the home made CPLD board. C0 = 0 XOR 0 XOR 1 = 1. A quick, simple non-cryptographic hash algorithm that works by XORing the bytes in a circular-shifting fashion. 2) prepended to the id hash before xoring with the connection key. What is XOR. Prefix XOR array with explanation - space=O(n. SHA2 Hash Calculator. 64 for SHA-512. Shalin and D. cat my1GBfile | xor my1MB. The control B works in such a way. There are plenty of checksum calculators out there, each supporting a different set of cryptographic hash functions. By using the HMAC (Hash Message Authentication Code) field below, you are also able to strengthen the security of your cipher. XOR Encryption uses the XOR operator (Exclusive Or, symbol : ⊕) with the plain text and the key as operand (that should be binary encoded). To eliminate state, we can pre-generate all the key pairs for all the tree node. I've added a random brain-dump discussion page, where I'll put more info about how I found the hash constants, test methodology, etc. A British company has filed a trademark application for the word ‘MakerSpace’. These are conflict-free hash functions which are different types according to m is even or odd. Viewing Vars(F) as a vector x of dimension n 1, we can represent the hash family as follows: Let H xor(n;m) , fh: f0;1gn!f0;1gmgbe the family of functions of the form h(x) = Mx +b with M 2Fm n. WebSphere {xor} password decoder and encoder. write("{0:02x} ". If you’ve ever searched through a document for a particular word, then you. Lectures by Walter Lewin. [Python] XOR with hash map 100% fastest. RULES REQUEST; WINNER’S NAME: For a copy of these Official Rules or for the name of the winner, please send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to RTM Productions LLC. So how is it performed? Quick research provides the answer, the hash code is calculated for each. Some techniques used to this end, such as binary search on levels, need to construct quickly a good hash table for the appropri-ate IP preﬁxes. As such, we combine the first 32 bits with the last 32 bits of our 64-bit double with an bit-wise xor operator †, as shown below. Transmit Hash Policy - Set the algorithm for slave interface selection according to the specified TCP/IP layer. String matching is a very important application of computer science. MacCormick's examples are all stated in Base-10. Xor encryption is commonly used in several symmetric ciphers (especially AES). XOR Encrypt is a tool to encrypt or decrypt data using a single character XOR key. Here is the list of logical operators :. XOR policy: Transmit based on selectable hashing algorithm. XOR is both faster and more secure than just addition. Generate a secure message by following the steps below. 1 Hash Functions A basic component of many cryptographic algorithms is what is known as a hash function. It's used to verify that the file is genuine. The checksum is the XOR of all the bytes between the $ and the * in the command string. A hash function for hash table lookup should be fast, and it should cause as few collisions as possible. u64 d2, d0, d1 rl1x. the initial position: [Hash for White Rook on a1] xor [Hash for White Knight on b1] xor [Hash for White Bishop on c1] xor. Modular conversion, encoding and encryption online. There's also a question about whether you mean hashing in a cryptogr. Also included is a variation which returns the checksum mod 256 (so it can be used as a single byte). XOR Encryption uses the XOR operator (Exclusive Or, symbol : ⊕) with the plain text and the key as operand (that should be binary encoded). There are a few popular ways of creating one-way hash functions, that operate on input data of various lengths, using algorithms of block ciphers. HMAC is a hash function based message authentication code that was designed to meet the requierments of the IPSEC working group in the IETF, and is now a standard. XORXOR XOR XOR XOR XOR ROL 1 ROL 1 ROL 1 ROL 1 ROL 1 XOR XOR XOR XOR XOR Column parity θ-effect x y x=0 x=1 x=2 x=3 x=4 y=4 y=3 y=2 y=1 y=0 x plane z slice lane State XOR ROL 1 d0/s0 d1/s1 d2/s2 rl1x. In this paper, using tools from graph theory and additive number theory, we solve several open problems and conjectures concerning bounds and constructions for separating hash families. [Python] XOR with hash map 100% fastest. W) src,dst src. This module provides data encoding and decoding as specified in RFC 3548. Notepad Replacement Text Editor Hash Calculator Notepad Text Checksum Replace. Calculate a hash (aka message digest) of data. If the bits are same then the result is 0 and if the bits are different then the result is 1. operation XOR [7, 8] in their encryption protocols. It is sometimes called an invertor because the output of a bit in x gets inverted if and only if the corresponding bit in y is true: # XOR two (8bit) bytes 'x' and 'y' x <- as. This method only recurses into hashes that are referenced by another hash. RipeMD320 Hash Calculator. Create your hashes online. $\endgroup$ - valdo Jun 2 at 12:17. C program to count spaces in a given string. MD6 Hash Calculator. Tokens Transferred: 2. Loop through each array element and XOR values and store in result; In the end, print hex values; Nice and simple now. com/ SERIES: Security Now! EPISODE: #597 DATE: January 31, 2017 TITLE: Traitors in Our Midst HOSTS: Steve Gibson & Leo. XOR is a digital logic gate that outputs true or 1 only when the two binary bit inputs to it are unequal i. The main component of a MAC function is a hash digest function (see Figure 10. 3ad LACP teaming mode or the XOR teaming mode, you must select which hash type option you want to use: Layer 2; Layer 2+3 (uses Layer 2 and Layer 3 hash types simultaneously) Layer 3+4 (uses Layer 3 and Layer 4 hash types simultaneously) Each hash type is described in the following table. with other hash functions based on modular additions, XOR gates and rotations. $\endgroup$ - valdo Jun 2 at 12:17. A quick, simple non-cryptographic hash algorithm that works by XORing the bytes in a circular-shifting fashion. A secure message is generated by performing the XOR (exclusive OR) operation three times on a hash value computed with SHA-256. SHA2 Hash Calculator. the computed XOR of all four depends on the order in which they are presented to the computation? If you have a four byte unsigned type and a two byte unsigned data type, both with no padding, then it can be done with only 2 XOR operations, by folding it in half, twice. Introduction In January 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to replace the Data Encryption Standard (DES) published in 1977. He showed his coworker an. CRC16 Hash. 101 5 ^ 1001 9 ---- 1100 12 5^9=12 we can perform XOR multiplication @ by doing binary long-multiplication but doing the adding step without carrying as bitwise XOR ^. It took an afternoon, and was my first attempt at pixel shaders. XOR/table Fowler–Noll–Vo hash function (FNV Hash) 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, or 1024 bits xor/product or product/XOR Jenkins hash function: 32 or 64 bits XOR/addition Bernstein's hash djb2: 32 bits PJW hash / Elf Hash: 32 or 64 bits add,shift,xor MurmurHash: 32, 64, or 128 bits product/rotation Fast-Hash: 32, 64 bits xorshift operations SpookyHash. If you know the keys you will be hashing before you choose the hash function, it is possible to get zero collisions -- this is called perfect hashing. Decoded hash murmur3: d2efcb46: tr_tr (unhashed, decoded, lookup, decrypted, decoded). A symetric cipher is simply a cipher in which the key is used for encryption and decryption process. out -----Operations on XOR Linked List -----1. They range from the small (set of peripherals in a laptop) to the very large (the world wide web), and are also extremely diverse. Any of you familiar with encryption systems can akin this to Crypt, though to a much. The byte equivalent of hash is : b'\xf1\xe0ix~\xcetS\x1d\x11%Y\x94\\hq' Explanation : The above code takes byte and can be accepted by the hash function. The binary operator XOR (⊕) is defined as the distance operator between key, or between keys and node IDs. Xor encryption is commonly used in several symmetric ciphers (especially AES). The result is a spinning cube, with each face showing a zooming in and out mandelbrot set, with randomized palettes to make all the coloring look nice. hash-lambda Define Private Keys in a Hash using a Struct-Like Interface Bug Reporting Help and Documentation Utilities hidapi hostname: Getting Hostname, FQDN, and IP Addresses Implementing HtDP Teachpacks, Libraries, and Customized Teaching Languages htdp-json: A JSON library for use with HtDP html-examples: Examples in HTML. Kesavaraja Get PDF (426 KB). Sha-1 is an improvement of Sha-0, it was created by the NSA, and improve cryptographic security by increasing the number of operations before a collision (theory says 2^63 operations), however Sha-1 is not considered as secure because 2^63 could be reach pretty. RipeMD320 Hash Calculator. An MD5 hash is composed of 32 hexadecimal characters. C program to separate words (tokens) from a given string. CRC16 Hash. $ g++ xor_list. 2) prepended to the id hash before xoring with the connection key. A cryptographic hash function is an algorithm that takes data and provides a hash value. SHA2 Hash Calculator. Generate the MD5 hash of any string. In the other direction, sometimes you're trying to make something that's not invertible, like a hash function. This implementation doesn't need to augment the serial input message with zeros. C++ Language: Collection of tutorials covering all the features of this versatile and powerful language. The MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a well-known cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit resulting hash value. Let k be the length of the hash value that is represented by the input parameter hBaseData. Sha-1 is a cryptographic function that takes as input a 2^64 bits maximum length message, and outputs a 160 bits hash, 40 caracters. txt indicating a normal text file, then an encrypted file with extension. Finally, two other common operations are to shift the bits left or right. xor is a dangerous default function to use when hashing. We are assuming that your set is made of 64-bit integers. Also it requires one traversal of array and one traversal of hash table. Of these, 2 3937 are disallowed by initialization (the lsb's are all "0") but this is just one unusable state out of 2 127. Decoded hash murmur3: d2efcb46: tr_tr (unhashed, decoded, lookup, decrypted, decoded). First, lets generate 23^6 strings and hash them into 100 bins. Your code is trying to XOR two 32 character strings. By Sung-Jin Cho, Un-Sook Choi, Yoon-Hee Hwang and Han-Doo Kim. The XOR Function was introduced in Excel 2013 and is available under Excel Logical functions. The input can be provided in Plain Text or Base64. Hash Functions. XOR Encryption uses the XOR operator (Exclusive Or, symbol : ⊕) with the plain text and the key as operand (that should be binary encoded). RipeMD256 Hash Calculator. Hash Lists. Calculate a hash (aka message digest) of data. Notepad Replacement Text Editor Hash Calculator Notepad Text Checksum Replace. But since the probe increment is itself a hash value, it is uniformly distributed over the size of the hash table which eliminates the clustering you get with other collision resolution algorithms. Also, I had another question: If I broke up the random data into 512-bit blocks, and hashed each of them with SHA-512 (using /dev/random to generate #'s for the hash function), would this increase, decrease, or do nothing to the quality of the data?. Here is a clone of the hash_hmac function you can use in the event you need an HMAC generator and Hash is not available. Residents of WA and VT may omit return postage. SHA1 Hash Calculator. A cryptographic hash is like a signature for a data set. This is known as a "second-preimage attack", and it's bad news for a hash function! Hash-then-XOR is not collision-resistant because XOR is commutative: forall a b, xor(a,b) == xor(b,a). A string is an abstract data type that consists of a sequence of characters. import sys. 160 bit Secure Hash Algorithm (NIST) SHA-2 (224 bit) 28: 224 bit Secure Hash Algorithm (NIST) SHA-2 (256 bit) 32: 256 bit Secure Hash Algorithm (NIST) SHA-2 (384 bit) 48: 384 bit Secure Hash Algorithm (NIST) SHA-2 (512 bit) 64: 512 bit Secure Hash Algorithm (NIST) RIPEMD (128 bit) 16: 128 bit RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest. Given a non-empty array of numbers, a0, a1, a2, … , an-1, where 0 ≤ ai < 231. Obviously I had misunderstood something before, and now reading more about it, I see that my logic was faulty. 基于HMAC的原理，是否可以在已有 hash算法上，自己实现 HMAC算法。 下面是 yvivid 在 Python上，基于 hashlib库（hash算法）的基础上，HMAC自行编码的一个实现的。 1）由于 需要 XOR是实现，因此 使用了 int 和 bytes的转换，写的不是很简洁（逻辑电路的思维）。. To restrict it to the range from 0 to n−1, simply reduce it modulo n, using the % operator:. SHA3 Hash Calculator. 集合对象还支持union(联合),intersection(交),difference(差)和sysmmetricdifference(对称差集)等数学运算. This program can be used to XOR hash values of several files to generate a master result, i. I'm not sure whether the question is here because you need a simple example to understand what hashing is, or you know what hashing is but you want to know how simple it can get. Otherwise, calculate that string’s hash code, and split up the number into 4 8-bit sections. first) ^ hash < string > ()(name. If you just shift one of the HashCodes left before using the xor operator you would have non-associativity but shifting left destroys information (the bits. The bitwise XOR operation can be used to encrypt any data or text using a key. For each of at least two users out of a plu. Lets see how well this holds up in the real world. Any ARX algorithm can be approximated by replacing ordinary addition with. The byte equivalent of hash is : b'\xf1\xe0ix~\xcetS\x1d\x11%Y\x94\\hq' Explanation : The above code takes byte and can be accepted by the hash function. A British company has filed a trademark application for the word ‘MakerSpace’. SHA1, SHA2 Secure Hash Standard [FIPS PUB 180-4] SHA3 SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions [FIPS PUB 202] BLAKE2 BLAKE2 — fast secure hashing MD5 The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm [RFC 1321] MD4 The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm [RFC 1320] MACs - Message Authentication Codes. If you select the IEEE 802. SHA224 Hash Calculator. Just compare the hash you create with the one available from the file's source. If it is half as large as the hash function output (in bits), it's easy $\endgroup$ - poncho Jun 2 at 12:09 $\begingroup$ @poncho: N can be arbitrary, but "reasonable", much lower than 2^bits. 3 The compression function used in secure hash algorithms falls into one of two categories: a function speciﬁcally designed for the hash function or an algorithm based on a symmetric block cipher. (b) for any 1 i < k the exclusive or (xor) of all elements referenced by an 2i+1 elements index block is 0 on the rst im bits. Hit the Calculate button to generate and check the CRC value. Setting db key descriptions didn't work in some cases. Use of Time (Sleep) function in C program. La caratteristica dello XOR bit a bit tra due indirizzi sta nel fatto che se C = A xor B, allora B = C xor A e A = C xor B. XOR is a digital logic gate that outputs true or 1 only when the two binary bit inputs to it are unequal i. Both contains 5 equal elements (say 1 to 5), but second array contains one extra element. element and combined with the previous result in an order independent way using either XOR or SUM. Fairplay [19]). (Similarly, if is a power of two, we can achieve pairwise independence from an XOR universal hash family by doing an exclusive or with a uniformly distributed random constant. Java calculates hash function for all objects inclusive sets. MD5 was designed by well-known cryptographer Ronald Rivest in 1991. Brute force attacks on cryptographic keys. Not all hash functions are secure and the hash does not necessarily changes when the data changes. Xor is also used As a passer - inverter. Go is a general-purpose language designed with systems programming in mind. the Hamming code has 16 codewords, and its codewords are 7 bits long. Why is XOR the most suitable for the purpose stated in your question? 为什么table的长度是2的指. For two bits, chances are 1/4 since there are 4 possible values. 1110 14 @ 1101 13 ----- 1110 0 1110 ^ 1110 ----- 1000110 70 [email protected]=70. Generate the MD5 hash of any string. Ethereum (ETH) detailed transaction info for txhash 0xa84bda74abdff8f6c08968e38484a08afea2e45b3fda6ee2115b91a48477105f. Here at Hackaday we’re big fans of device-reuse, and what [arturo182] has done with the Blackberry Q10’s keyboard is a fantastic example. By Sung-Jin Cho, Un-Sook Choi, Yoon-Hee Hwang and Han-Doo Kim. In response to the NIST’s “International Call for Hash Function”, we developed a biological hash function using the computing capabilities of bacteria. Xorshift random number generators, also called shift-register generators are a class of pseudorandom number generators that were discovered by George Marsaglia. Checksum Calculators. Sha-1 is a cryptographic function that takes as input a 2^64 bits maximum length message, and outputs a 160 bits hash, 40 caracters. Setting db key descriptions didn't work in some cases. Lint levels. We give XOR-based hash functions by the following. Hash functions take octet strings of variable length, and generate fixed length octet strings. W) src,dst src→dst Move source to destination Adapted from notes from BYU ECE124 18. Home; Ascii checksum. NET was not helping in any way. The transaction status, block confirmation. wird durch XOR Kombination mit einer Konstanten ("padding") auf die Blocklänge der Hash-Funktion aufgefüllt; das sind 64 Byte (512 Bit) für die meisten gängigen Hash-Funktionen. geeksforgeeks. [email protected] hashmap xor. 2 Virtually all cryptographic hash functions involve the iterative use of a compression function. base64 — RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings¶. This is used in the Feistel construction. The NaCl compilation scripts test known outputs of each primitive for many different message lengths, test consistency of different functions supported by the same primitive (for example, crypto_stream_xor matches crypto_stream), and test memory safety in several ways. No value can be changed, no keys can be added or deleted. A boolen hash function is given that takes a hexadecimal key as input and returns the hash for that key (hash can be only 0 or 1). ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 100 3. Display List 3. So "bad" will hash combine the same as "dab". I've added a random brain-dump discussion page, where I'll put more info about how I found the hash constants, test methodology, etc. But trust me, it’s more than that. C++ Language: Collection of tutorials covering all the features of this versatile and powerful language. The main reason probably consists in the reliable. 02x - Lect 16 - Electromagnetic Induction, Faraday's Law, Lenz Law, SUPER DEMO - Duration: 51:24. The XOR operand is so applied to each bit between the text you want to encrypt and the key you'll choose. This can help with load sharing of artificial flows created by some testing gear (or perhaps some applications). Show the results of a bitwise and, or, and xor for four these values. It is better than and and or, but that doesn't say much. {{level}} Lint groups. MD2 is specified in RFC 1319. When implementing an XOR-based hash function, it is extremely important to understand what patterns are mapped conflict-free and how a hash function. A cryptographic hash function (such as SHA1) is a checksum that is secure against malicious changes. Computer networks and protocols are critically important to modern life. Instead, do change the hash function in your system to a new hash function, like SHA512. This module provides data encoding and decoding as specified in RFC 3548. The default policy is a simple source+destination MAC address algorithm. WebSphere Password Decoder This utility can decode WebSphere encoded passwords. Use the rolling hash method to calculate the subsequent O(n) substrings in S, adding each substring into a hash table O(n) 3. If the bits are different from each other, the result is 1 (1 XOR 0 = 1). Example: The plain message is 1001 and the key is 10 Take the first bit ( 0 or 1 ) of the plain text and the first bit of the key and multiply then using XOR operation to get the ciphered bit. Email me with any quest. Go is a general-purpose language designed with systems programming in mind. It implements a cryptographic hash function for use in message integrity checks. It’s the Cyber Swiss Army Knife. Combined one byte at a time with the plaintext stream using the XOR operation, a _____ is the output of the pseudorandom bit generator. Der Begriff Secure Hash Algorithm (kurz SHA, englisch für sicherer Hash-Algorithmus) bezeichnet eine Gruppe standardisierter kryptologischer Hashfunktionen. Hash Functions 8. You'll find my take on this algorithm in the code example below:. Now XOR them together (XOR is the simplest of decryption procedures and forms the basis of many algorithms including MD5) as shown below to retrieve the output of the procedure. XOR the block into the hash value. It's used to verify that the file is genuine. It follows that we don't need just another library function for a few use cases, but rather a deeply embedded facility that the. XOR’d Secret Key XOR hash hash. MD2 is specified in RFC 1319. Author Tobias Achterberg Stefan Heinz Marc Pfetsch Michael Winkler. You could just xor the two HashCodes together but that wouldn't give you non-associativity. 101 5 ^ 1001 9 ---- 1100 12 5^9=12 we can perform XOR multiplication @ by doing binary long-multiplication but doing the adding step without carrying as bitwise XOR ^. element and combined with the previous result in an order independent way using either XOR or SUM. This still balances per flow, not per packet. The SHA-256 algorithm generates an almost-unique, fixed-size 256-bit (32-byte) hash. u8 s2, s0, s1 Data dependencies of θ-effect Instruction rl1x NEON Register Naming. SHA224 Hash Calculator. Prefix XOR array with explanation - space=O(n. C2 = 0 XOR 1 XOR 1 = 0. A draft criteria to eval…. public static string XORencrypt(string text, string key) { byte[] decrypted = Encoding. Going crazy about the above retaining bikers’services for a 128-bit integer. A cryptographic hash function is an algorithm that takes data and provides a hash value. C program to count spaces in a given string. Not all hash functions are secure and the hash does not necessarily changes when the data changes. Hash the ﬁrst length L substring of T O(L) 4. pad(X) is the padding function used by the hash. XOR’d Secret Key XOR hash hash. A degree-127 Additive RNG using 127 elements of 32 bits each has 2 4064 unique states. I liked the name Murmur better than Musxmusx, so I kept it. Рестораны , Ночные клубы , Бары , Максимилианс, баварский клубный ресторан-пивоварня. The decryption database is coming from all the wordlists I was able to find on the internet. SHA256 Hash Calculator. RipeMD320 Hash Calculator. The key in public-key encryption is based on a hash value. A particularly interesting class of hash functions is the XOR-based hash functions, which compute each set index bit as the exclusive-or of a subset of the address bits. Finally, I did indeed luck out: inverse_hash(0) = 0x7ffffbffffdfffff This isn’t a valid pentago board in my packed representation, so zero initialization works. The bitwise XOR operator outputs true only when both inputs differ (one is true, the other is false). A secure message is generated by performing the XOR (exclusive OR) operation three times on a hash value computed with SHA-256. Simple python XOR encrypt/decrypt. 根据定义，Hashcode用于帮助Equals更快速的鉴定两个对象是否相同，于此同时，HashCode也广泛运用于很多基于Hash的Collections。本文简要分析了HashCode的实现以及用于。 1. I've added a random brain-dump discussion page, where I'll put more info about how I found the hash constants, test methodology, etc. A few hash functions allow a rolling hash to be computed very quickly—the new hash value is rapidly calculated given only the old hash value, the old value removed from the window, and the new value added to the window—similar to the. Hash digest functions are considered one of the fundamental primitives in modern cryptography. The XOR-functions are optimal for one particular execution of a program. It is sometimes called an invertor because the output of a bit in x gets inverted if and only if the corresponding bit in y is true: # XOR two (8bit) bytes 'x' and 'y' x <- as. All the job is made locally in your browser. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance. About Hash-Buster: Hash Buster is a python script which uses several online hash cracker WEBSITE to find cleartext of a hash in less than 5 seconds. Keywords: Hash-based signatures, Standard-ization, Merkle trees, XMSS. Hash digest functions are considered one of the fundamental primitives in modern cryptography. 1 来自hashcode的思考. In the following, we discuss the basic properties of hash functions and attacks on them. To eliminate state, we can pre-generate all the key pairs for all the tree node. SHA512 Hash Calculator. The better the round function, the better your encryption algorithm will be. XOR is both faster and more secure than just addition. The XOR is commutative so it starts with the first two hexadecimal numbers, XORs them together, and gets the result. The default policy is a simple source+destination MAC address algorithm. Each specialization of this template is either enabled ("untainted") or disabled ("poisoned"). For a strong hash of bit length N, chances are 1/2 N that the two hash values will randomly match and produce a XOR value of all 1, and same to be the exact inverse and XOR to all 0. Hash-then-XOR may be ideal if you wish to hash a set of values in. Each entry provides a 4-bit RSS output index. This online hash generator converts your sensitive data like passwords to a SHA-1 hash. 4 1 HASH FUNCTIONS Figure 1: Symmetric Encryption the messenger (e. For every type Key for which neither the library nor the user provides an enabled specialization std::hash, that specialization exists and is disabled. com/ SERIES: Security Now! EPISODE: #597 DATE: January 31, 2017 TITLE: Traitors in Our Midst HOSTS: Steve Gibson & Leo. But usually if you just use a sequence of somewhat non-invertible operations, it's a disaster because the. If you encounter a problem, you can send it using this form explaining the nature of your bug. A cryptographic hash can be used to make a signature for a text or a data file. MD4 Hash Calculator. Simple Cipher Algorithm Very simple to use symmetric Java encryption utility. xor maps pairwise identical values to zero, and you should avoid mapping "common" values to zero:. Applied Cryptography Group | Stanford University. 1 The Modular Diﬀerential and the XOR Diﬀerential The most important analysis method for hash functions is diﬀerential attack which is also one of most important methods for analyzing block ciphers. element and combined with the previous result in an order independent way using either XOR or SUM. Description of problem: Cannot get arp_ip_target to work on mode=2 i. The United States of America has adopted a suite of secure hash algorithms (SHAs), including four beyond SHA-1, as part of a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), specifically SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512. The hash value returned is a 64-bit unsigned integer. This is a value that is computed from a base input number using a hashing algorithm. For testing I am using the values usertokens and methodtoken for the test hashes. Thus a Hash of Hashes (HoH) will all. A few hash functions allow a rolling hash to be computed very quickly—the new hash value is rapidly calculated given only the old hash value, the old value removed from the window, and the new value added to the window—similar to the. VMKnic > NFS1 (0xa00000a Xor 0xa000014 =1E) % 2= 0 VMKnic > NFS2 (0xa00000a Xor 0xa000016 =1C) % 2= 0 IP-Hash chooses the first uplink in the team because they. Given two numbers, a (the dividend) and n (the divisor), a modulo n (abbreviated as a mod n) is the remainder from the division of a by n. For a strong hash of bit length N, chances are 1/2 N that the two hash values will randomly match and produce a XOR value of all 1, and same to be the exact inverse and XOR to all 0. For example, an sample hash function in C would be written like this. Bit-wise XOR result, returned as an array. Since Python’s built-in hash() function is random, a NEW random result can be generated by applying the XOR with another number. Prefix XOR array with explanation - space=O(n. 2020 23:01:01 +0100 - build 5661 1. He showed his coworker an. Comparison of SHA functions. When it comes to cryptosystems, the security of encrypted data is dependent on keeping the encrypting algorithm secret. Output is in hexadecimal octets. To recap, the XOR result is true if both operands have different Boolean values. The key's SHA256 hash is saved in the input file, so that it can be compared with the provided password for decryption. A quick, simple non-cryptographic hash algorithm that works by XORing the bytes in a circular-shifting fashion. First version, might still contain bugs. C program to ring a bell. The negation of XOR is logical biconditional, which outputs true precisely when the two inputs. We can solve this problem in O(1) space by using XOR operator. Knowledge of binary arithmetic is also important to understand code written using bitwise operators in Java programming language. This online tool allows you to generate the MD5 hash of any string. Shalin and D. This quick and dirty encryption/decryption function takes whatever string you pass it, assigns it to a byte array, Xor's each byte by a constant, then returns the string. Ethereum (ETH) detailed transaction info for txhash 0x8b9dfa702a61e6719aa3bfde28f91206f53e7a618e7095c60e27b6836a1bd31a. Two interesting illustrations IMHO of the "XOR vs XOR-less" discussion are the hash-based schemes SPHINCS+ and Gravity-SPHINCS, similar at a high-level, but different in their use (or lack thereof) of masks: - Gravity-SPHINCS removes the XOR trick, thus relying on collision-resistance (see ia. SHA512 Hash Calculator. This can be repeated with every tool that generates a checksum based on the MD5 hash function. the computed XOR of all four depends on the order in which they are presented to the computation? If you have a four byte unsigned type and a two byte unsigned data type, both with no padding, then it can be done with only 2 XOR operations, by folding it in half, twice. SHA-1: w(i) := (w(i-3) xor w(i-8) xor w(i-14) xor w(i-16)) <<< 1 SHA-0: w(i) := (w(i-3) xor w(i-8) xor w(i-14) xor w(i-16)) Ataki. The FNV-1a hash differs from the FNV-1 hash by only the order in which the multiply and XOR is performed: algorithm fnv-1a is hash := FNV_offset_basis for each byte_of_data to be hashed do hash := hash XOR byte_of_data hash := hash × FNV_prime return hash. There are around 200 useful operations in CyberChef for anyone working on anything vaguely Internet-related, whether you just want to convert a timestamp to a different format, decompress gzipped data, create a SHA3 hash, or parse an X. XOR-based hash functions Hans Vandierendonck ( UGent ) and Koen De Bosschere ( UGent ) ( 2005 ) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS. xor maps pairwise identical values to zero, and you should avoid mapping "common" values to zero:. , the order of the XOR operations. A boolen hash function is given that takes a hexadecimal key as input and returns the hash for that key (hash can be only 0 or 1). Finally, I did indeed luck out: inverse_hash(0) = 0x7ffffbffffdfffff This isn’t a valid pentago board in my packed representation, so zero initialization works. Create online your Adler32 hash of your data or upload a file and calculate a Adler32 checksum. Applied Cryptography Group | Stanford University. Node D: npx = add(C) XOR 0 // bitwise XOR of address of C and 0. Then I enlarged the wordlist by creating my own script and add several letters to each word, to make my database unique and pertinent. Tags: Python code cryptography XOR hash. ret_from_intr (6 samples, 0. ) Since a shift by a constant is sometimes irrelevant in applications (e. C++ Language: Collection of tutorials covering all the features of this versatile and powerful language. C program to count spaces in a given string. Can’t do better than this. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance. This is a simple hash that pads its input to the block size and XORs every block together. Introduction. Bitwise operators treat their operands as a sequence of 32 bits (zeroes and ones), rather than as decimal, hexadecimal, or octal numbers. Here at Hackaday we’re big fans of device-reuse, and what [arturo182] has done with the Blackberry Q10’s keyboard is a fantastic example. For the final stage, Python takes the current hash value and uses the XOR operation to incorporate the length of the string, which is 3 in our case. The SELECT DISTINCT statement is used to return only distinct (different) values. The input can be provided in Plain Text or Base64. Iterated hash functions uRepeat use of block cipher or custom function • Pad input to some multiple of block length • Iterate a length-reducing function f – f : 22k-> 2k reduces bits by 2 – Repeat h 0= some seed h i+1 = f(h i, x i) • Some final function g completes calculation Pad to x=x 1x 2 …x k f g x i f(x i-1) x Applications of. In other words, c 1 = E k (iv) XOR m 1, and c i = E k (c i-1) XOR m i. With two instructions a shift+xor is probably the best option. 4 1 HASH FUNCTIONS Figure 1: Symmetric Encryption the messenger (e. ) Since a shift by a constant is sometimes irrelevant in applications (e. First of All, convert all. lock_hash_recurse unlock_hash_recurse lock_hash_recurse(%hash); lock_hash() locks an entire hash and any hashes it references recursively, making all keys and values read-only. This one line function adds up the ascii values of a string and returns the total as a checksum. The XOR encryption method should be used by itself when an organization is transmitting or storing sensitive data. The negation of XOR is logical biconditional, which outputs true precisely when the two inputs. New Attacks on the Concatenation and XOR Hash Combiners Itai Dinur. We use truncated addition to analyze hash functions that are built from the bit operations add, rotate, and xor, such as Blake , Skein , and Cubehash. Out of curiousity I wrote a Mandelbrot pixel shader in OpenGL GLSL. Introduction. The key's SHA256 hash is saved in the input file, so that it can be compared with the provided password for decryption. It offers the following advantages to its users − Fast. In version 3. A boolen hash function is given that takes a hexadecimal key as input and returns the hash for that key (hash can be only 0 or 1). Hash-then-XOR may be ideal if you wish to hash a set of values in. The formula is (((source IP XOR dest IP) AND 0xffff) XOR ( source MAC XOR destination MAC )) modulo slave count This algorithm will place all traffic to a particular network peer on the same slave. Even XOR- or \(\Delta\)-universality doesn’t suffice: the hash values for a given string are well distributed when parameters are chosen uniformly at random, but this does not imply that hashes are always (or usually) well distributed for fixed parameters. Ci = ith bit of the hash code, 1<=i<=n m = number of n-bit blocks in the input bij = ith bit in jth block XOR = exclusive-OR. If either A or B is a scalar double, and the other is an integer type, then C is the integer type. A hash function maps some data to other data. You probably don't want to use this -- encryption with XOR is notoriously weak and methods for ciphertext-only cryptanalysis have been around for centuries: do a Google for "Vigenere", a similar scheme based on the 26-letter alphabet. RipeMD320 Hash Calculator. This is a value that is computed from a base input number using a hashing algorithm. Instead of addition, we use exclusive or (XOR) to ``add'' the blocks of the data word. PEP 456 -- Secure and interchangeable hash algorithm XOR-ed to the final value. There's also a question about whether you mean hashing in a cryptogr. Insert Element at First 2. Un'importante applicazione delle funzioni crittografiche di hash è nella verifica dell'integrità di un messaggio. XOR Encrypt can be instructed to overwrite the original files or save the. The better the round function, the better your encryption algorithm will be. When using a Xor Decryptor tool, your data are secured because they don't transit on a network. Une somme de contrôle [1] (checksum en anglais) est une courte séquence de données numériques calculée à partir d'un bloc de données plus important (par exemple un fichier ou un message) permettant de vérifier, avec une très haute probabilité, que l'intégrité de ce bloc a été préservée lors d'une opération de copie, stockage ou transmission. It is sometimes called an invertor because the output of a bit in x gets inverted if and only if the corresponding bit in y is true: # XOR two (8bit) bytes 'x' and 'y' x <- as. A RNGCryptoServiceProvider built on top of CryptoAPI. A cryptographic hash is like a signature for a data set. Port trunking: Balance XOR - missing xmit_hash_policy option Don't miss a thing. Leeds has the benefit of being the location of the Farnell trade counter. All of Our Miniwebtools (Sorted by Name): Our PWA (Progressive Web App) Tools (17) Hash and Checksum (8) {{title}} Miscellaneous (108. The standard logical operators and, or, not, and xor are supported by PHP. A draft criteria to eval…. Hash-then-XOR may be ideal if you wish to hash a set of values in. When implementing an XOR-based hash function, it is extremely important to understand what patterns are mapped conflict-free and how a hash function. Bit-wise XOR result, returned as an array. MacCormick's examples are all stated in Base-10. A cryptographic hash function is an algorithm that takes data and provides a hash value. I came up with this example to help understand the above: m = 3 (we have 3 blocks of 4 bits) b1 = 0101, b2 = 0111, b3 = 1011. So "bad" will hash combine the same as "dab". Not all hash functions are secure and the hash does not necessarily changes when the data changes. In this assignment your task is to find hash function collisions using the birthday attack discussed in the lecture. XOR-based hash functions Hans Vandierendonck ( UGent ) and Koen De Bosschere ( UGent ) ( 2005 ) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS. simple program that uses xor encryption algorithm to encrypt a string. The MSB (leftmost bit) of each byte is shifted in first. How fast is it?. JDoodle is a free Online Compiler, Editor, IDE for Java, C, C++, PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby and many more. Decoded hash murmur3: d2efcb46: tr_tr (unhashed, decoded, lookup, decrypted, decoded). In this paper we are interested in the security of these combiners in the case that both \(H_1\) and \(H_2\) are based on the Merkle-Damgård construction with independent. I know you’ve written it before and simple xor-ing looks fine.